Data Guide | MultiDark (Planck)

This simulation is good for ...

  • Modelling galaxies with stellar mass above ~10^9 Msun
  • Probing Gpc scales


The MultiDark simulations comprise a suite of N-body simulations of various cosmologies, volume, and resolution (which are part of a larger family of simulations that includes Bolshoi), described in Klypin et al. (2016). TAO currently hosts the MultiDark (Planck) simulation, otherwise abbreviated to MDPL. Currently, MDPL is the largest-volume simulation available on TAO with full semi-analytic model data, and it has the most up-to-date cosmology. MDPL was run with GADGET2. Further information and data products for MultiDark can be found here.

Relative size

  • Box length: 1000 h^-1 Mpc

The volume relative to Millennium and an all-sky survey out to z=0.05:

Mass resolution

  • Particle mass: 1.5 × 10^9 h^-1 Msun
  • Gravitational softening: 5 h^-1 kpc
  • Number of particles: 3840^3
  • Number of snapshots to z=0: 126

The particle size compared to Millennium:

MDPL has 1.74 times lower mass resolution than Millennium, meaning a Millennium halo contains 1.74 times the number of particles of an MDPL halo of equivalent mass.


The cosmological parameters of the MDPL simulation are based on Planck data released in 2013 (published as Planck Collaboration XVI 2014).

  • Ω_M = 0.307
  • Ω_Λ = 0.693
  • Ω_b = 0.048
  • σ_8 = 0.829
  • n = 0.96
  • h = 0.678


Haloes and subhaloes were identified using ROCKSTAR, with merger trees subsequently built with CONSISTENT-TREES.